Showing posts with label medicine. Show all posts
Showing posts with label medicine. Show all posts

Wednesday, April 14, 2021

Contributions of Muslims to Medicine



- Translation of Work from Other Languages

- Knowledge of Anatomy

- Physiology

- Bacteriology

- Surgery

- Optical Work

- Operation of Cataracts

- Structure of the Eyes

- Cesarean Operation

- Development of Hospitals

- Mobile Hospitals

- Medical Schools



Centuries before the advent of Islam the Arabs had their own system of medicine in the form of herb and shrubs which was based on Chaldean medicine and on their own experience. Gradually Greek medicine attracted their attention. Harith ibn Kaldah was the first to introduce Greek medicine e to the Arabs. Khalid ibn Yazed ibn Mu'awiya had some Greek and Egyptian books translated into Arabic during the 'Umayyah period. But the science of medicine flourished during the time of the Abbasids.

Initially, the Muslims made arrangements for the translation of Greek, Indian, Persian and Chaldean medical works into Arabic, and thus received their knowledge of medicine from these nations. Before they accepted at face value the information they extracted, they conducted research in various branches in medicine to verify what they gathered from these texts.

In addition, they made many valuable new discoveries in medical theory and practical. By combining their discoveries, with the information they filtered from other sources they evolved an entirely new system of medicine.

The Arabs had a fair knowledge of anatomy as it is obvious from the names of the internal and external organs of the human and animal bodies found in the literature of pre-Islamic Arabia. When they became acquainted with the Greek anatomical descriptions, they made investigations on them, pointed out many errors in the work of their predecessors, and made many new discoveries in this field.

In order to verily the Greek anatomical ideas prevailing at that time, Yuhanna ibn Masawaih made dissections of apes supplied to him by the order of the 'Abbasi Khaleefah Mu'tasim Billah. After this verification he composed his work on anatomy. The works of some Muslim physicians and surgeons, like Tashrili al-Mansuri by Mansur ibn Muhammad, contain illustrations of human organs, which are not found in the Greek works. These illustrations also throw light on the Muslims' practical knowledge of anatomy.

In the field of physiology the work of the Muslim physicians is quite valuable. For instance, Ala al-Din Abu al-Hassan 'Ali ibn Abi Hazm al Qarshi of Damascus explained the theory of the minor circulation of blood three centuries before William Harvey, who is credited with this discovery. Also, al-Qarshi suggested that food is fuel for the maintenance of the body's heat. Abu al-Faraj 'Ali ibn al-Hussein held that there are canals in the nerves through which sensations and movement are transmitted.

The contributions of Muslims in the field of bacteriology are quite revolutionary. According to Browne, Muslims were fully aware of the theory of germs. Ibn Sina was the first to state that bodily secretions are contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before getting the infection. Ibn Khatimah of the 14th century CE stated that man is surrounded by minute bodies which enter the human body and cause disease. His observation was made from the great plague that effected many parts of the world. Ibn al-Khatib (1313 - 1375 CE), a Spanish physician, wrote a treatise called On the Plague. His observation was:


"The existence of contagion is established by experience, investigation, the evidence of the senses and trustworthy reports. These facts constitute a sound argument. The fact of infection becomes clear to the investigator who notices how he who establishes contact with the afflicted gets the disease, whereas he who is not in contact remains safe, and how transmission is affected through garments, vessels and earrings."


Some Muslims also gave new suggestions regarding the treatment of diseases. Abu ai-Hassan, the physician of'Adud al-Dawlah" introduced the process of bleeding as a treatment of cerebral hemorrhage which is often due to blood pressure.

Al-Razi suggested nourishing food for the treatment of general weakness. The Muslim physicians were the first to use the stomach tube for the performance of gastric lavage in the case of gas poisoning. They were fully aware of the principles of phototherapy centuries before Browne Sequard, who is ascribed to discovering this method of treatment.

Sa'id ibn Bishr ibn 'Abdus suggested light foods and cold producing medicines for the treatment ofgeneral paralysis and facial paralysis. Ibn al-Wafid gave emphasis upon the treatment of diseases through food control. They discovered the treatment for epidemic jaundice and suggested a reasonable quantity of opium as a treatment of mania. For epistaxis they suggested the pouring of cold water on the head.

In the science of surgery there were also many advancements made by Muslims. They introduced the cauterizing agents in surgery. They were the first to apply the method of cooling to stop the hemorrhage, and suture wounds with silken threads.

It cannot go unnoticed that one of the most famous and eminent figure in Islamic medical field was Ibn Sina. It is said that for a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history, His most important medical works are the Qanun (Canon) and a treatise on cardiac drugs.

In the 11th century CE Ibn Zuhr gave a complete description of the operation of tracheotomy, which was not mentioned by the Greeks. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi invented many surgical instruments illustrated in his book Al- Tasrif. In the same book he described the methods of operations for various diseases. While describing the operations of the skull and its parts, the Muslim surgeons made a mention of operations of the uvula and nasal cavity. They also used methods of tonsillectomy and paracentesis ofthe ear drum.

The Muslim opticians did valuable and original work in the treatment of eye diseases and surgery. Many of the surgical principles formulated by Muslims are still utilized today. The method of operation of cataracts was first described by them. They knew that cataracts were due to the incapacity of the eye lens. Ibn al Haytham described the structure of the eye and gave revolutionary ideas regarding the mechanism of sight and describing various types of lenses.

The art of midwifery was highly developed by Muslims. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi invented the method of cranicolsy for the delivery of dead fetus and applied it himself. A book entitled AI-Athar al-Baqiyyah in the University of Edinburgh contains an illustration showing an Arab physician performing cesarean operation.

During the time of'Umayyah rule, the Muslims developed the institution Of hospitals. During the time of the 'Abbasi Khaleefah Harun aI-Rasheed a hospital was built in Baghdad, which was the first in the history of this city. Many new hospitals were established shortly afterwards. Some of them had their own gardens in which the medicinal plants were Cultivated. The large hospitals had medical schools attached to them. Besides such hospital there were a large number of mobile hospitals in the Muslim world.

The Muslim hospitals served as models for the hospitals established in different parts of Europe, particularly in Italy and France during the 14th century CE due to the influence of the Crusades. The Crusaders were inspired by the magnificent hospitals of the Seljuq ruler Nur al-Dir, in Damascus and those of the Mamluk Sultan aI-Mansur Qala'un in Cairo.

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Food as Medicine

The Prophet’s guidance on neutralizing the harm of various foods and fruits
In the Hadith book it is narrated that 'Abdullah bin Ja'far said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah Said, eat ripe dates with cucumbers.
Ripe dates are hot in the second degree, increase sexual desire and add strength to the cold stomach. However, ripe dates rot quickly, induce thirst, harm the teeth, spoil the blood and cause headaches, various clogs and pain in the prostate.
Cucumbers are cold and wet in the second degree and they prevent thirst, have a refreshing aroma and cool the stomach.' When the seeds of the cucumbers are dried then crushed and is boiled with water, they produce a drink that will quench the thirst, help produce urine and soothe the pain in the prostate. When cucumber seeds are crushed and then sifted, they will whiten the teeth when brushed with it. Further, when cucumber plant leaves are crushed and blended with raisin jelly and used as a bandage, they will help against the bite of a hydrophobic dog.
In general , dates are hot while cucumbers are cool, and each is suitable for the other and also neutralizes each other's harm. This is a type of balancing off the harm of one substance by combining it with its opposite or antidote , and these are the goals that preventive science seeks to achieve. In fact, these are the goals that the science of medicine as a whole seeks to achieve.

Combining the foods or medicines with their antidotes or opposites makes the product milder and rids it of any harmful side effects. Consequently, the body will preserve its health, strength and wellbeing.
'Aishah  may Allah be please with her, the mother of believers once said, "They tried to make me fatter using every type of food, but I did not get fatter. But when they fed me ripe dates and cucumbers, I became fatter."
In short, neutralizing the effect of the hot substance with the cold, the cold with the hot, and the dry with the wet and the wet with the dry produces a milder substance that is considered among the best remedies and preventive measures. Prophet's has said, concerning blending Senna and Sanoot (honey and butter) that this method will make the Senna milder. May Allah bestow His peace and blessings on him, who was sent with all that brings life to the hearts and bodies and what brings about their benefit in this life and the Hereafter?
The Prophet’s guidance on treating various illnesses with food and medicine the body is used to
This is also one of the major pillars and the most beneficial parts of the science of medicine. We have stated that this is a pillar of the science of medicine, as the best medical authorities concur. For instance, the renowned Arab doctor, Al Harith bin Kaladah , said, "Diet is the best cure; and the stomach is the home of diseases; give each body what it is accustomed to (of food and medicine) ." In another statement, Al-Harith said, 'Azm is a cure,' [meaning hunger}. In fact, going on a diet is a better cure for plethoric illnesses (having an excess of blood in the body and therefore looking reddish), except when there is a fear that the condition would flare up with septic accumulation and aggravate the illness.

Al-Harith stated that the stomach is the seat or home of diseases. The stomach is a curved organ that looks like a gourd and consists of three layers of delicate and neural components called fibers and surrounded by flesh. The fibers of one layer are arranged longitudinally, while the second layer's fibers are horizontal and the third slanting. The tip of the stomach has more nerves, while the bottom has more flesh and its interior is coated and fuzzy. The stomach is located in the middle of the abdomen, leaning more to the right side, created in this shape by the wisdom of the All-Wise Creator.
The stomach is indeed the residence of the ailments; it is the center of the Digestion and maturing process of all food and drink. After that, the digested food descends to the liver and the intestines. Meanwhile, excess amounts of partially digested substances that the stomach was not able to completely digest remain - either because the amount of nourishment was excessive, spoiled, or was not consumed in the Proper order - or all of these reasons. Some of this undigested food remains in the stomach and the body is not be able to completely discard them, and this is why the stomach is the residence of ailments. AI-Harith indicates the importance of eating less food and preventing the heart from fulfilling its desires.
As for one's being accustomed [to certain things and foods] it is a part of the human nature. Habit has such a great influence on the person and on his body, that if we conduct an experiment on several people who have the same characteristics, the result will vary considerably. For instance, three young, hot-tempered men, one of them is used to eating hot foods, the second is used to cold foods, while the third man is accustomed to mild foods. When the first person eats honey, it would not harm him, unlike the second person, while the third person would be slightly bothered. Habit, therefore, is an important basis on which preserving the health and healing ailments relies. That is why the Prophet ~ said that each person should be treated according to what he is accustomed to of medicine and food .

The Prophets guidance on treating the sick with the simplest types of food
We mentioned that observing the habits and customs of a certain sick person benefits them with a favorable cure and nourishment. The people in Madinah were accustomed to eating barley soup ground not whole, thus making it more nutritious and beneficial for them. The doctors in cities recommend the use of whole barley grains, because the soup in this case is lighter and easier for the ailing person to digest.
The people who live in cities are used to comfort and an easy life and that is why ground barley grain is heavy on their stomachs . Whole grain barley soup is digested quickly, provides good nutrition, and cleanses the stomach, especially when taken while it is still hot.
In this case, its cleansing and digestive qualities are stronger and the soup will also develop its instinctive heat quicker and will soften the outer layers of the stomach.
The Prophet's statement that the milk-like soup takes away some of the sadness refers to the effect of sadness on the mood and in weakening the instinctive wellbeing of a person, which in turn affects the soul and the heart. Milk-like soup brings strength to one's inner energy and thus the body will be able to rid itself of the sadness and grief that has taken over it.
We could also say that some foods bring relief to the heart, such as the type of soup mentioned above, because they possess a special quality that affects people's mood and brings them relief and comfort. And Allah knows best.
We might also say that the sick person's strength becomes weaker because of his grief and sadness that translates to dryness in the body and the stomach due to the scarcity of food. The milk-like soup brings wetness and strength to the stomach, which will also bring relief to the heart. The sick person may complain from an accumulation of harmful flatulence or phlegm in his stomach. The milk-like soup will dissolve these harmful substances or dilute them, so that the pain and harm they cause are diminished, especially for those accustomed to eating barley bread, such as the people of Madinah. During that time, barley bread was the staple diet for the people of Madinah as wheat was scarce at that time.

Tuesday, December 4, 2012

How to treat Headaches

The Prophet’s guidance on treating headaches and migraines
Headaches are defined as pain that appears in some part of the Head or all of it, but when the headache afflicts one side of the head, it is called migraine. The type that attacks the entire head is sometimes called a helmet, for it resembles the helmet that covers the head.

Furthermore, headaches sometimes afflict only the back or the front side of the head.
There are many types of headaches that result from various conditions. Headaches usually start when the head becomes hot due to the pressure of a septic vapor that accumulates near the head and which seeks a way out of the body, but fails . Then, the pressure of the vapor intensifies, just as a pot when it is heated but the steam is not able to escape from it. It is a fact that when moisture heats up, it seeks more space to expand. Similarly, the vapor accumulates near the head and then causes a headache in the entire head because it is unable to expand or escape from the body as it heats up. This condition causes a type of dizziness.

There are various specific causes for headaches:
When one of the four essential conditions (coldness, hotness, dryness and wetness) becomes predominant
Ulcers of the stomach cause headaches, because the cephalic (relating to the head) nerves and the stomach are connected. Thick flatulence might accumulate in the stomach then later ascend to the head and cause headaches. Headaches are sometimes caused by a tumor in the gastric veins that cause pain in the head, because the stomach and the head are connected.
When the stomach is full of food it sometimes provokes headaches, as some of the food remains undigested. Headaches sometimes occur after sexual intercourse because the body will then be weakened and thus exposed to the heat of the air. Headaches sometimes occur after vomiting due to excessive dryness, or to accumulating gaseous materials (flatulence) that ascend to the head from the stomach.
Sometimes hot weather and air provoke headaches. Headaches are sometimes caused by the cold weather and from the vapor that accumulates in the head and which is unable to decompose. Not having enough sleep also causes headaches. Headaches are sometimes caused due to the pressure exerted on the head, such as when one carries a heavy object on his head. Excessive talking sometimes weakens the mind in a way that causes headaches.
Strenuous movements and sports activity can also provoke headaches. Sadness, depression, obsession and evil thoughts also provoke headaches. Excessive hunger provokes headaches, as in this case; the excess gaseous materials (flatulence) that accumulate in the stomach ascend to the brain and provoke headaches.
Those who suffer from a tumor in the cerebral lining sometimes feel as if hammers are constantly pounding on their heads. Fever also provokes headaches because of the intense heat that the body suffers from them. And Allah knows best. Headaches result from changes in the system that affects the cerebral blood vessels.

The weaker side of the brain will accept septic material and the migraine headache will be accompanied by pulsation in the arteries. The pain can be relieved in this case when one tiesa bandage so that the pulsing of the arteries is stopped and thus the pain is lessened.
Abu Naim (may Allah have mercy upon him) said in his book on Prophetic Medicine that migraine headaches used to afflict the Prophet and that it would prevent him from going out of his house for one or two days at a time. Also, Abu Nalm related from Ibn 'Abbasthat he said, " Once, the Messenger of Allah delivered a speech while a cloth was tied around his head. "
The Sahih states that the Prophet Peace Be Upon Him said during the illness that preceded his death ‘O my head!" He used to tie a piece of cloth around his head. Tying a piece of cloth around the head helps soothe the pain of headaches and migraines.
Treating headaches varies to their type and Causes
Hence, headaches could be relieved by inducing vomiting, eating, being calm and staying inactive, using cold compresses, cooling the body, elevating the temperature, avoiding noise, etc.
Knowing these facts, we should mention that treating headaches with Henna is partial and that it cures only some types of headache. If the headache is caused by high fever and not a spoiled substance that requires extraction, Henna helps soothe the headache somewhat. Crushed Henna blended with vinegar and applied to the forehead will relieve the headache.

Henna also soothes the nerves when used as a bandage. Finally, Henna is not only favorable to relieve headaches, but also for the various organs of the body and for the hot tumors and inflammations when used as a bandage.
Henna is cold in the first degree and dry in the second degree. The Henna tree has two special qualities: decomposing due to its warm watery essence, and constipating due to the cold earthly essence it contains.
Henna is useful in treating bums and soothes the nerves when used as a bandage, as we have stated. When chewed, Henna can helps treat cankers and thrush that appear in the mouth. Henna also heals stomatitis (inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth) that appear in the child’s mouth. Using Henna to bandage hot tumors also helps, as it has a similar effect on open sores as the dragon’s blood tree has on them. When the Henna flower is blended with pure wax and rose oil, it helps against the aches of the side (Thatul Janb).
When the symptoms of smallpox start to break out on children and Henna is then applied on the bottom of their feet, the eyes will be immune from the sores that accompany smallpox. When the flower of the Henna is placed between wool clothes , it will perfume it and will prevent mold or mites. Furthermore, when the leaves of the Henna are submerged in fresh water, then squeezed and drunk for forty days, twenty measures each day along with ten measures of sugar while eating the meat of a young ewe, it prevents leprosy with its amazing qualities .
We · were told that a man once complained from fissuring in his fingers and that he offered monetary rewards to whoever could cure him, but to no avail. Later ,,4 I' on, a woman prescribed for him a drink of Henna for ten days but he could not stand the idea of drinking it. Later on, he soaked Henna leaves in water and drank the water and his fingers were healed and regained their beauty.
Henna is also used as an ointment for the fingers, as it polishes and strengthens them. Henna is also useful when blended with butter and then used as a bandage for the hot tumors that drain yellow residue.
Henna also benefits against chronic mange, helps the hair grow, makes it stronger and strengthens the head. Finally, Henna helps against the blisters and the pustules that appear on the legs and feet and the rest of the body in general.
The Prophet’s guidance on treating pain in general with Islamic prayer formulas
Muslim ( Ibn Ma'jah, Ahmad and At-Tabarani) narrated in his Sahih that 'Uthman bin Abu Al-'Aas complained to the Prophet from a pain in his body that he suffered from ever since he became a Muslim. The Prophet said: Peace Be Upon Him
Place your hand on the affected area in your body and say, 'In the Name of Allah,' thrice. Then say, 'I seek refuge with Allah’s Might and Power from the evil of what I am suffering from, and because of which I have become wary', seven times. "
The remedy mentioned here entails reciting Allah’s Name, relating all matters to Him and seeking refuge with His Might and Power from the pain, and will surely eradic ate the pain. Also, repeating the supplication contained in the remedy frequently will make it even more effective and successful just as the case when the medication is frequently administered until the disease is fully eradicated.
In the Sahiha in it is narrated that the Prophet used to visit some of his family members (who were ill) and would touch them with his right hand, saying:
"0 Allah, the Lord of mankind! 00 away with the complaint and bring about the cure. You Alone bring the cure, and there is no cure except Your cure, a cure that does not leave illnesses."
The last Islamic prayer formula includes begging Allah by His Perfect Lordship and Mercy to bring about the cure. The Islamic prayer formula also affirms that Allah is the only One Who brings the cure and that there is no cure except the cure that He brings about. The Islamic prayer formula includes begging Allah by His Oneness, Kindness and Lordship.

Henna is extensively used from the old ages. Originally Henna is Iranian plant presently grown across middle east and Indian Subcontinent.
There are number of uses of Henna. The leaves are used for coloring and medicinal purpose. Flower is used for fragrance. It is very costly natural fragrance used in Arab World. Every part of the Henna has medicinal use.
Henna leaves plaster is used very good in controlling body temperature and also blood pressure. Because of its nature, it is extensively used in for medicinal purpose.

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

Muslim Contribution to Engineering

- Windmills
- Crankshaft
- Waterwheel
- Hydraulic Apparatus
- Magnetic Needle
- Guns and Cannons
- Wind, Tidal and Steam Power

Many centuries before the Industrial Revolution in Europe, Muslims had already started on the path of innovation in the field of engineering and industrialization. There is ample evidence that suggests that Muslims were the first to make industrial uses of tidal power, wind power and steam power.
As for wind power, the Muslims were using windmills in the 7''' century CE to grind com and to draw water for irrigation. It is reported that windmills were widely used during the rule of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab", the second Khaleefah.
Building on the knowledge of the water flows, the Muslims invented water turbine, which had water wheels with curved blades onto which water flow was directed axially. This was first described in a 9th century CE Arabic text for use in a watermill.
The Muslims are noted as the first to invent various types of industrial mills. These include, hullers ", paper mills , saw mills, ship mills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills and tide mills. By 11th century CE, mills of all types were established across regions from Spain and North African to the Middle East and Asia.
In additional to the mills, many other industries were established for astronomical instruments, ceramics, chemicals, distillation technologies, clocks, glass, matting, mosaics, pulp and paper, perfumery, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, rope-making, shipping, shipbuilding, silk, textiles, weapons, and the mining of minerals such as sulfur, ammonia, lead and iron. The first large factory complexes were built for many of these industries. Knowledge of these industries was later transmitted to medieval Europe.

Another area of ingenuity of the Muslims can be seen in harnessing steam for power. Engineer Taqi al-Din described the first practical steam turbine as a prime mover for rotating a spit. In his book, AI- Turuq alSaniyya fi al-Alat al-Ruhaniyya (The Sublime Methods of Spiritual Machines), completed in 1551 CE, he wrote:
The Muslims' contributed greatly towards mechanical engineering as well. They worked on the mechanics of wheel, usage of axle, waterwheel, lever pulley, gears, toothed wheel, and other mechanical devices such as crank shaft.
Amongst the famous mechanical engineers of the 13th century CE was Abu al-'Isa Ismail ibn Razzaz Badi al-Zaman al-Jazari. He wrote amply on various mechanical engineering topics and invented a number of machines. His best work was published in 1206CE title AI-Jami bain al amwal-Amal al-Nafi fi Sinat 'at al-Hiyal (The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices), in which he described in great detail 50 mechanical devices. Amongst his work include water clocks, hand washing device (for making ablution), machines for raising water, double acting pumps with suction pipes, use of a crank shaft in a machine, calibration of orifices, lamination of timber to reduce warping, static balancing of wheels, use of paper models to establish a design and casting of metals in closed mould boxes with green sand.
Qaisar ibn Abu al-Qasim, a mathematician and astronomer (d. 1251 CE) made improvements on the waterwheels. Such improved types of water-wheels are still seen on Orontes10 and are among the landmarks of Hama. Muslims led the world at that time in making clocks. Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Rustam al-Khurasani was a famous constructor of clocks, and as a result, he was called al-Sa 'ati (the clock maker).
The Muslims were also the first to use explosive material in guns and cannons. The purpose of this invention was to throw bullets at the enemy from a long distance. The Chinese used sodium nitrate only. But the penetrating power of explosives was discovered and used only by the Muslims. The earliest known military applications of these explosive gunpowder compositions were the explosive cannons first used by the Muslims to repel the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 CEo The statement given by Ibn Khaldun in his History of Berbers also proves the use of the guns at the time of war.

Sunday, November 11, 2012

Contribution of Muslims to Chemistry

- Definition of Organic & Inorganic Chemistry
- Sulfur Mercury Theory of Metals
- Calcination
- Reduction
- Discoveries of various Acids Sulfuric & Nitric acids
- Preparation of Drugs
- Applied Chemistry
- Paper
Chemistry deals with the composition and properties of substances and the changes of composition they undergo. It has been divided into Inorganic and Organic. The conception of this division in modem Chemistry came from al-Razi 's classification of chemical substances into mineral, vegetable and animal. Inorganic chemistry, which deals with the preparation and properties of the elements and their compounds, originally arose from the study of minerals and metals. Organic chemistry, which deals with carbon compounds, developed through the investigation of animal and plant products.
Jabir ibn Hayyan, a great Muslim chemist of the 8th century CE, modified the Aristotelian doctrine of the four elements, and presented the so called sulfur mercury theory of metals. According to this theory, metals duller essentially because of different proportions of sulfur and mercury in them. He recognized and stated the importance of experimentation in chemistry; He combined the theoretical knowledge of the Greeks and the practical knowledge of craftsmen, and made noteworthy advances both in the theory and practice of chemistry. Jabir's contribution to chemistry is very great. He gave a scientific description of two principle operations of chemistry. One of them is calcination which is employed in the extraction of metals from their ores. The other is reduction which is employed in numerous chemical treatments. He improved upon the methods of evaporation, melting, distillation, sublimation and crystallization. These are the fundamental methods employed in the purification of chemical substances, enabling the chemist to study their properties and uses, and to prepare them. The process of distillation is particularly used for taking extracts of plant material. The most important discovery made by Jabir was the preparation of sulfuric acid. The importance of this discovery can be realized by the fact that in this modem age the extent of the industrial progress of a country is mostly judged by the amount of sulfuric acid used in that country.
Another important acid prepared by him was nitric acid which he obtained by distilling a mixture of alum and copper sulfate. Then by dissolving ammonium chloride into this acid, he prepared aqua-regia which unlike acids could dissolve gold in it.

Jabir classified chemical substances, on the basis of some distinctive features, into bodies (gold, silver, etc.) and souls (mercury, sulfur, etc.) to make the study of their properties easier. In the same century Jabir's work was further advanced by al-Razi who wrote many chemical treatises, and described a number of chemical instruments. He applied his chemical knowledge for medical purposes, thus laying the foundation of applied chemistry.
Abu Mansur distinguished between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate. He had some knowledge of arsenious oxide, cupric oxide, antimony and other substances. He knew the toxicological effects of copper and lead compounds, the depilatory virtue of quicklime, the composition of plaster of Paris and its surgical use.
The great Muslim surgeon, Khalaf ibn' Abbas al-Zahrawi wrote a great medical encyclopedia, Al-Tasrif, which contains interesting methods of preparing drugs by sublimation and distillation, but it's most important part is the surgical one. Ibn Sina wrote a treatise on minerals that provided one of the main sources of geological knowledge, and chemistry in Western Europe until the Renaissance. The Muslim chemists applied their chemical knowledge to a large number of industrial arts.
Paper is also featured in the pioneering works of the Muslims. Paper was invented by the Chinese who prepared it from the cocoon of the silk worm. Some specimens of Chinese paper dates back to the second century C.E. The first manufacture of the paper outside China occurred in Samarkand  in 757 C.E., when Samarkand was captured by the Muslims, the manufacture of paper spread all over the Muslims World. By the end of the 12th century CE, there were four hundred paper mills in Fas alone. In Spain the main center of manufacturing of paper was Shatiba which remained a Muslim city until 1239 C.E., Cordoba was the center of the paper business in Spain.
The Muslims developed this art. They prepared paper not only from silk, but also from cotton, rags and wood. In the middle of the 10th century CE the paper industry was introduced into Spain. In Khurasan" paper was made from linen. Joseph Karabacek, in one of his works, explains the process of making paper in minute detail, describing how the pulp is prepared to make sheets, washed and cleaned them, colored, polished and pasted. No text comparable to this in any other language exists from that time. The preparation of pulp involves a large number of complicated chemical processes, which indicates the level of achievement in chemistry reached by Muslims.
The manufacture of writing paper in Spain is one of the most beneficial contributions of Muslim to Europe. Without paper the scale on which popular education in Europe developed would not have been possible. The Muslims method of producing paper from cotton could only be useful for the Europeans. After Spain the art of paper making was established in Italy in1268 CE France owed its first paper mills to Muslim Spain. From these countries the industry spread throughout Europe.