Thursday, July 19, 2012
· Force, Motion and Light
· The balance
· Elasticity of Air
· Steam Bath
· Science of Optics
· Research in Spherical and Parabolic Mirrors
· Research in Angles of Incidence and reflection
Muslim Scientist studied the fundamental questions of physics deeply. Ibn Sina made profound studies of such phenomena as force, motion, light heat and vacuums name few. A great progress was made in theoretical and applied mechanics.
The physicist and astronomer al-Khazini wrote a book on mechanics and hydrostatics and physics known as Kitab Mizan al Hikmah ( book of Balance of Wisdom. Umar al-Khayyam did the greatest work on the balance. Ibn Sina and Al-Razzi ( D 924CE) contributed to the theory of balance. Muslims developed science of optics. Ibn al-Haytham made a remarkable contribution towards this science. Indeed modern optics began with him. Al biruni noticed that the speed of light is immensely greater than that of light.
Wednesday, July 18, 2012
· Number Zero
· Arabic Numbers
· Al Khawarizmi’s Work on Algebra
· Determining roots of Quadratic Equations
· Sine and Cosine Tables
· Cubic Equations
· Work of Banu Musa on Geometry
The symbols used today for numbers in the West are derived from the Arabic symbols. Algebra was made exact science by Muslims. Al Khwarizmi named his book dealing with this subject al Al Kitab al Mukhtsur fi Hisab al-Jabr wa al Muqabala ( The Book of Rstitution and Comparison) Algorithm was derived from his work. He wrote an encyclopedic work dealing with arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy.
Abu Said al- Darir al Jurajani ( d 845) who was Muslim Astronomer and Mathematician , wrote on geometrical problem.
Umar ibn Ibrahim Al Khayyam was one of greatest Muslim Mathematicians and astronomer of Middle Ages. He discussed cubic equations. Another mathematician and geographer was Al Hassan ibn Ali al Murrakushi, who flourished until 1262 CE. He wrote various works on astronomy, which was put to practical use in astronomical instruments and methods. Also, Abu al Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Uthman al Azadi , a very popular Muslim writer authored 74 works that dealt with mathematics and astronomy.
Converting to Islam - the white Britons becoming Muslims
Regents Park Mosque
Conversions at Regent's Park Mosque in London happen on a weekly basis
Sarah Joseph converted to Islam when she was a teenager
As 22-year-old Aisha Uddin recites Surah Al-Fatiha - the first chapter of the Koran - at home with close friend Sameeah Karim, she may stumble over one word but otherwise the text is perfectly recounted.
Aisha Uddin: 'It's a change I'm happy I've made'
But unlike Sameeah, 35, who has Pakistani heritage and grew up reading the holy book, Aisha is newer to it: she used to be called Laura and only converted to Islam two years ago.
She is pale and has bright blue eyes; originally from Birmingham, until recently she dressed like many other young white British women.
"Before it was the jeans, the hoodies, loads of make-up," she says.
Now Aisha wears a long black jilbab (a long flowing over-garment) and a cream-coloured hijab (headscarf).
"For me now, obviously it's a dramatic change, but it's a change I'm happy I've made, because now I don't have to prove myself to anybody out there."
Aisha took an interest in religion at school - and started quietly visiting her local mosque to find out more.
"Islam caught my eye and I wanted to look further into it - the people, the culture - and I carried on studying it and studying it, even after school. Living in Birmingham, I was surrounded by the religion."
She says she spent years finding out more about Islam before fully committing to the religion, changing her appearance and starting to pray five times a day.
"Life's changed dramatically, I was a rebel before, I was always getting into trouble at home, going out and staying out - not trying hard enough at school.
"Then when I became Muslim, I sort of calmed down. I wanted to stay at home studying on the internet or reading books. And I'm more happy than I was - I'm proud of who I am, I've got a certain identity."
Aisha is one of a growing number of white converts according to a new study by Swansea University for the charity Faith Matters.
Using a number of sources, including a survey of more than 250 British mosques, census data from 2001 and conversion figures in Europe, the researchers estimate that there could be as many as 100,000 converts - of all ethnic backgrounds - in the UK. This represents an increase on an estimated 60,000 converts in 2001.
For an insight into the experiences of Muslim converts, the researchers spoke to 120 - mainly young, white women.
Many converts - like Aisha - reported experiencing hostility from their families. She says her parents thought her conversion represented a rejection of her upbringing.
"My family they weren't too happy about it, [saying] why change your identity? Why cover your hair? Why dress the way you dress?" says Aisha.
"Being in a society where there's so much bad press around... but if you actually get to know these people, they're the friendliest people ever. I'm proud to be Muslim, I don't care what my family say."
Aisha does have a wider support network now. She has recently had a traditional Asian wedding to a British Bangladeshi man and lives with her in-laws.
She also has a lot of friends, also converts, who she met at new Muslim groups.
Aisha pores over pictures of all the women lined up in their different coloured headscarves at her wedding.
"That's Lailah, that's Hanan, that's Mary… Sameeah's the only Asian one," she laughs.
At Regent's Park Mosque in central London there are many white faces among the crowd for Friday prayers.
Conversions happen here every week - largely on a Saturday, and they are mostly women.
Tony Blair's sister-in-law, Lauren Booth, is a recent convert and prays there.
One London imam, Ajmal Masroor, says the findings of the study come as little surprise to him. He says in his experience around three-quarters of converts are women.
"Many people are looking for a spiritual and fulfilling lifestyle rather than the hedonistic, materially-driven one that we have around us," says Imam Masroor.
"They find an answer in Islam. Women are hard-wired to reflect and think and take things more seriously, even from a young age.
Continue reading the main story
The hijab was and very much is about the search for inner beauty”
"This has been going on for the last 20 years and more so since 9/11. People are curious, so they go to the book rather than the distorted media headlines.
"They learn that Islam is fulfilling as a personal journey as well as a collective conscience."
Sarah Joseph sits in her office studying the latest edition of Emel, the Muslim lifestyle magazine she edits.
She converted to Islam as a teenager and has adopted the headscarf, saying she was looking for something with more meaning.
"I'd grown up in a model agency and I'd been surrounded my whole life by external beauty, and the hijab was, and very much is, about the search for inner beauty," she says.
Despite the difficulties, Sarah says British converts have a vital role to play in explaining two sides - Britain's Muslim and non-Muslim communities - to each other.
"[Converts have] authentically belonged to two traditions and should act as a conduit to show each side that we share far more than we differ."
Tuesday, July 3, 2012
This is from Quran Surah Saff - Ayah 8 and 9 from Tafeemul Quran
(61:8) They seek to extinguish Allah’s light (by blowing) with their mouths, but Allah shall spread His light in all its fullness, howsoever the unbelievers may abhor this. *12
يُرِيدُونَ لِيُطْفِئُوا نُورَ اللَّهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَاللَّهُ مُتِمُّ نُورِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ ﴿61:8﴾
هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ ﴿61:9﴾
*12 One should bear in mind that these verses were sent down in A.H. 3 after the Battle of Uhud, when Islam was confined only to the city of Madinah, the Muslims were only a few thousands in number, and entire Arabia was bent upon wiping out this religion. The defeat that the Muslims had suffered at Uhud, had sullied their image of power and the tribes of the surrounding areas had been emboldened. Under such conditions it was said: "No one will succeed in blowing out this Light of Allah, but it will shine forth in all fullness and spread throughout the world." This was a clear prediction which literally came true. Who could know apart from Allah at that time what was the future of Islam? Human eyes could only sec that it was a flickering candle and violent winds were blowing to put it out for ever.
(61:9) He it is Who has sent forth the Messenger with the Guidance and the True Religion that He may make it prevail over all religion, however those that associate aught with Allah in His Divinity might dislike this. *13
*13 "The mushriks ": those who combine the service of others with the service of AIIah and mix other religions in the Religion of Allah; who are not prepared to see that the entire system of lift is established on the obedience and guidance of One God; who insist that they will worship any deity they like and base
"Then said the priest: 'How shall the Messiah be called, and what sign shall reveal his coming? "Jesus answered: `The name of the Messiah is admirable, ,for God himself gave him the name when he had created his soul, and placed it in a celestial splendour. God said: `Wait Muhammad; for thy sake I will to create paradise, the world, and a great multitude of creatures whereof I make thee a present, insomuch that whoso shall bless thee shall be blessed, and whose shall curse thee shall be accursed, When I shall send thee into the world, I shall send thee as my messenger of salvation, and thy word shall be true, insomuch that heaven and earth shall fail, but thy faith shall newer fail. Muhammad is his blessed name' (Ch. 97)
Barnabas writes that on one occasion Jesus spoke to his disciples and said that one of them (who was to be Judas Iscariot) would sell him to the enemies for 30 pieces of gold. Then said:
"Whereupon I am sure that who shall sell me, be slain in my name, for that God shall take me up from the earth, and shall change the appearance of the traitor so that every one shall believe him to be me; nevertheless when he dieth an evil death, I shall abide in that dishonour for a long time in the world But when Mohammed shall come, the sacred messenger of God, that infamy shall be taken away. And this shall God do because I have confessed the truth of the Messiah, who shall give me this reward that I shall be known to be alive and to be a stranger to that death of infamy.' (Ch. i 12)
(To the disciples Jesus said:) "Verily I say unto you that if the truth had not been erased from the book of Moses, God would not have given to David our father the second. And if the book of David had not been contaminated, God would not have committed the Gospel to me; seeing that the Lord our God is unchangeable, and hath spoken but one message to a]I men. Wherefore, when the messenger of God shall come, he shall come to cleanse away all where with the ungodly have contaminated my book.' (Ch.124)
In these clear and comprehensive prophecies there are only three things which at first sight appear to be doubtful. First, that in these and in several other passages of the Gospel of Barnabas the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) has denied his own self being the Messiah. Second, that not only in these but at many other places also in this Gospel the Holy Messenger's actual name "Muhammad" has been mentioned, whereas this is not the way the Prophets make prophecies: they do not mention the actual name of the one coming in the future. Third, that in these the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) has been called the Messiah
The answer to the first objection is that not only in the Gospel of Barnabas but in the Gospel according to Luke also it is mentioned that the Prophet Jesus had forbidden his disciples to call him the Christ (the Messiah). The words in Luke are: "He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God. And he strictly charged them, and commanded them to tell no man that thing." (9: 20-21) Probably the reason was that about the Messiah whom the Israelites were awaiting, they thought he would subdue the enemies of truth by the sword. Therefore, the Prophet Jesus (peace be on him) said that he was not that Messiah* but he would come rafat him.
The answer to the second objection is that no doubt in the extant Italian translation of Barnabas the Holy Prophet's name has been written as "Mohammed", but no one knows through how many different languages has this book reached the Italian. Obviously, the original Gospel of Barnabas must be in Syriac, because that was the language of Jesus and his companions. If the original book were extant, it could be seen what name of the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) was written in it. Now what one can assume is that originally the Prophet Jesus must have used the word Munhamanna as we have explained above by citing Ibn Ishaq's reference to St. John's Gospel. Then different translators may have translated it in their own languages. Later, probably some translator seeing that the name given in the prophecy was exactly synonymous with the word "Mohammed" may have written this very sacred name of the Holy Prophet. Therefore, the mere appearance of this name only is not enough to give rise to the doubt that the entire Gospel of Barnabas has been forged by a Muslim.
The answer to the third objection is that the word "Messiah" is an Israelite technical term, which has bets used in the Qur'an particularly for the Prophet Jesus for the reason that the Jews had denied his being the Messiah; otherwise it- is neither a Qur'anic term nor has it been used anywhere in the Qur'an in the meaning of the Israelite term, Therefore, if the Prophet Jesus used the word Messiah for the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), and the Qur'an has not used this word for him, it is not right to conclude that the Gospel of Barnabas ascribes something to him which the Qur'an denies. In fact, it was customary with the Israelites that when somebody or something was set aside for a sacred cause, the person or thing was anointed with the holy oil on the head and consecrated. This anointing with the oil was called mesh in Hebrew, and the one thus anointed messiah " Utensils were likewise anointed and set aside for use in the house of worship. THe priests also were anointed when they were appointed to priesthood. The kings and the prophets too were anointed when they were designated to kingship or prophethood by God. Thus, according to the Bible, there have been many messiahs in the history of the Israelites. The Prophet Aaron was a messiah as a priest, Moses as a priest and a prophet, Saul as a king, David as a king and a prophet, Melchizedek as a king and a priest, and AI-Yas'a (Elisha) was a messiah as a prophet. Later, it was no longer regarded as necessary to appoint a person by their beliefs and morals and civilization on any philosophy and doctrine they please, As against the ways of such people, it is being said that the Messenger of AIlah has not been sent to make a compromise with than, but' with the object that he .should cause the Guidance and Religion of Truth which he has brought from Allah to prevail ove all religion, i.e. every aspect of the way of life. This mission he has to accomplish in any case whether the disbelievers and polytheists like it or not, and whoever they support it or resist it. This declaration has been made in the Qur'an at two other places about, in Surah At Taubah: 33 and Surah AI-Fath: 28. Here it has been re-iterated for the third time. (For further explanation, see E.N. 32 of At-Taubah and E.N. 51 of Al-Fath).