Saturday, June 2, 2012

Travelling Manners and Etiquettes

Islamic Travelling Manners and Etiquettes
This is start of the travelling season of the year so I thought I should put down few points. What are the manners and etiquettes of traveling as Muslims?
Step 1 - Istekhara 
The first and foremost thing is as you intent to take journey first do ISTEKHARA. Pray two rakat Salat Istekhara. After praying two rakat Nafil Salat then makes following dua and leaves the matter to Allah. If it is good for you then Allah will make is easy, if it is not good then Allah will make it difficult.

 Prophet said: ‘If one of you is deliberating over an act, he should pray two non-obligatory rak’at and say:“O Allah, I consult You as You are All-Knowing and I appeal to You to give me power as You are Omnipotent, I ask You for Your great favor, for You have power and I do not, and You know all of the hidden matters . O Allah ! If you know that this matter (then the person reciting the du’a should mention the matter for which he is seeking Allah’s Guidance) is good for me in my religion, my livelihood, and for my life in the Hereafter, (or he said: ‘for my present and future life,’) then make it (easy) for me. And if you know that this matter is not good for me in my religion, my livelihood and my life in the Hereafter, (or he said: ‘for my present and future life,’) then keep it away from me and take me away from it and choose what is good for me wherever it is and please me with it.”
 The following hadith (referred above in Fiqh-us-Sunnah) is narrated by Jabir bin Abdullah about Salat-ul-Istikhara in Sahih Bukhari (volume 2, hadith number 263 and again volume 9, hadith 487):
 The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to teach us the way of doing Istikhara (Istikhara means to ask Allah to guide one to the right sort of action concerning any job or a deed), in all matters as he taught us the Suras of the Quran. He said, “If anyone of you thinks of doing any job he should offer a two Rakat prayer other than the compulsory ones and say (after the prayer): ‘Allahumma inni astakhiruka bi’ilmika, Wa astaqdiruka bi-qudratika, Wa asaluka min fadlika al-’azim Fa-innaka taqdiru Wala aqdiru, Wa ta’lamu Wala a’lamu, Wa anta ‘allamu l-ghuyub. Allahumma, in kunta ta’lam anna hadha-l-amra (then the person reciting the du’a should mention the matter for which he is seeking Allah’s Guidance)   Khairun li fi dini wa ma’ashi wa’aqibati amri (or ‘ajili amri wa’ajilihi) Faqdirhu li wa yas-sirhu li thumma barik li Fihi, Wa in kunta ta’lamu anna hadha-lamra shar-run li fi dini wa ma’ashi wa’aqibati amri (or fi’ajili amri wa ajilihi) Fasrifhu anni was-rifni anhu. Waqdir li al-khaira haithu kana Thumma ardini bihi.‘
Don’t wait for Dream or Any other form inclination just start working, if Allah wish the act will be easy or you otherwise it will be difficult and Allah will take care of it.

Step 2 - Wasiyat 

The second step is wasiyat, put all of liabilities and assets and make very clear how it should pay off. It is very important to make it very clear that all must according to Shariah, so please tell your family about it.

Step 3 – Bidding Farewell to Family and Friends
When one is about to set out on a journey or trip, it is recommended for him to bid farewell to his wife, relatives and Muslim brothers. Ibn Barr said “ when one of you is about to leave for a journey, then let him bid farewell to his brothers, for indeed, Allah places Barkah( Blessings) in their supplications”. Quazah said, “ Ibn Umar RadiAllahunho said to me, ‘ Come let me bid farewell to you in the same manner that the Messenger of Allah Peace be Upon Him bade farewell to me: I place your religion, your faithfulness, and ends of your deeds in trust of Allah.
When bidding farewell to someone going off on a journey, recite:

أَسْتَوْدِعُ اللَّهَدِينَكَ وَأَمَانَتَكَوَخَوَاتِيمَ عَمَلِكَ

"(I make) Allah responsible for your deen, your trustworthiness and for the results of your actions". (Tirmidhi )

Dua for another person undertaken a journey
When some other person undertakes a journey, recite the following dua:

زَوَّدَكَ اللَّهُالتَّقْوَى وَغَفَرَلَكَ ذَنْبَكَوَيَسَّرَ لَكَالْخَيْرَ حَيْثُكُنْتَ

“May Allah make piety part of your journey, forgive your sins and fulfill the purpose of the journey”. (Tirmidhi)

Dua at the time of his departure:
اللَّهُمَّ إِطْوِلَهُ الْبُعْدَوَهَوِّنْ عَلَيْهِالسَّفَرَ

“O Allah, let his journey be covered quickly and most easily”. (Tirmidhi)

·         It is dislike to travel alone.
·         If A Travel Party Is Made Up Of Three Or More People, It Is Recommended For Them To Appoint One Of Them To Be Their Ameer.
·         The Prohibition of Taking A Dog or A Bell on A Journey.
·         The Desirability of setting on a Journey on Thursday in the Early part of the Day
·         Desirability of returning Home soon after the Accomplishment of a Task
·         Desirability of returning Home by Day

Supplication at the time of Riding
Allah, the Exalted, says:
"... and has appointed for you ships and cattle on which you ride. In order that you may mount on their backs, and then may remember the Favour of your Rubb when you mount thereon, and say: `Glory to Him Who has subjected this to us, and we could never have it (by our efforts). And verily, to Our Rubb we indeed are to return!'''(43:12-14)
972. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) mounted his camel for setting out on a journey, he would recite: "Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest),'' thrice. Then he (PBUH) would supplicate: "Subhanal-ladhi sakh-khara lana hadha, wa ma kunna lahu muqrinin, wa inna ila Rabbina lamunqalibun. Allahumma inna nas'aluka fi safarina hadh al-birra wat-taqwa, wa minal-`amali ma tarda. Allahumma hawwin `alaina safarana hadha, watwi `anna bu`dahu. Allahumma Antas-Sahibu fissafari, wal-Khalifatu fil-ahli. Allahumma inni a`udhu bika min wa`ta'is-safari, wa kaabatil-manzari, wa su'il-munqalabi fil-mali wal-ahli wal-waladi (Far removed from imperfection is the One Who has made this subservient to us, for we have no power to subjugate it, and certainly to our Rubb shall we return. O Allah, we ask You during this journey of ours for righteousness, piety and such deeds as are pleasing to You. O Allah, make easy for us this journey of ours and make the distance short for us. O Allah, You are our Companion during the journey and the Guardian of the family and the property in our absence. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the hardships of travelling, unhappiness connected with ghastly scenes and evil turns in property and family).'' When he returned, he recited this supplication making addition of these words: "Ayibuna, ta'ibuna, `abiduna, li-Rabbina hamidun (We are those who return; those who repent; those who worship and those who praise our Rubb).''

Commentary: This is a very comprehensive prayer. Man is not safe from dangers during a journey and in his absence, safety of his household may worry him, too. In this prayer, Allah is entreated to ensure the safety of the two in most effective words. And none can harm that person who comes under the Watch and Protection of Allah. This prayer should be recited upon starting on a journey as well as returning from it.
Glorification of Allah by a Traveler while Ascending and Descending
975. Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: When we ascended (a height) we would proclaim: "Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest),'' and when we descended (from the height) we would proclaim: "Subhan Allah (Allah is free from imperfection).'''

976. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: Whenever the Prophet (PBUH) and his army ascended a height, they would proclaim: "Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greatest),'' and when they climbed down, they would proclaim: "Subhan Allah (Allah is free from imperfection).''
[Abu Dawud].

Commentary: While climbing up some height, superiority complex may creep into man's head. He should, therefore, pronounce Divine greatness saying that Allah is the Greatest of all, the Most High, and all creatures are low and humble and subordinate to Him. On climbing down we should say: "Subhan Allah (Allah is free from imperfection).
Desirability of Supplications during the Journey
980. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Three supplications are answered without doubt. The supplication of the oppressed, the supplication of the traveler, and the supplication of the parent for his son.'' [At-Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud].
Commentary: This Hadith mentions two dimensions of supplications. First, the supplication of an oppressed person will be in favour of the one who will come to his help and redress his complaint, whereas the oppressor will be hit by his supplication. Second, Allah also answers the father's supplication for his disobedient and impudent son; and the mother's supplication is even more effective than that of the father's because, as compared to him, she has more rights over them. Man should, therefore, restrain himself from disobeying parents, so that he may escape in both cases the supplication which is not rejected by Allah.
Supplication on Alighting at a Halt
982. Khaulah bint Hakim (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying,"Whosoever alights somewhere and says: `A`udhu bikalimat-illahit-tammati min sharri ma khalaqa (I seek refuge with the Perfect Words of Allah from the evil of what He has created),' nothing will harm him until he leaves that place.''

Commentary: Wherever and whenever we stay, be it at night or in the day time, for a short or long duration, we should recite this supplication.
Supplication at the time of returning Home and on seeing one's Hometown
987. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: We returned with the Prophet (PBUH) from a journey; and when we entered the suburbs of Al-Madinah, he (PBUH) said: "Ayibuna, ta'ibuna, `abiduna, li-Rabbina hamidun (We are returning in safety, turning to our Rubb, worshipping Him and praising Him).'' He (PBUH) continued repeating these words till we entered Al-Madinah.

Commentary: When one returns from a journey and sees his town's highlights, he should start reciting the invocation mentioned in this Hadith till he enters the city. These words express gratitude to Allah for safe return to one's hometown; they also express repentance, obedience and determination to worship Allah.
Desirability of Entering the Mosque near one's Home upon returning from a Journey for offering two Rak'ah Prayer
988. Ka`b bin Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) returned from a journey, he would proceed straight to the mosque and perform two Rak`ah of (optional) prayer.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary: The performance of two Rak`ah of optional prayer is an expression of gratitude to Allah for the safe return. Naturally, one feels happy on such an occasion.
It Is Prohibited To Travel For A Women Without A Maharam ( Riyadus Saliheen)
989. Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to make a journey of one day and night unless she is accompanied by a Mahram (husband or any other relative to whom she is prohibited to marry).''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

990. Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "No man must not be alone with a woman except in the presence of her (Mahram). No woman should travel except in company of a (Mahram).'' A man said: "O Messenger of Allah! I have been enrolled for such and such expedition, and my wife left for Hajj.'' He (PBUH) said to him, "Go and perform Hajj with your wife.''
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary: This Hadith proves that under no circumstance woman may travel alone. The Shari`ah strictly bans a meeting of this kind between two opposite sexes. Even if nothing objectionable happens, a mischievous person may exploit this situation and talk about them slanderously. Families disregardful of Hijab provide instances of illicit relationship between a man and a woman related to each other.

Shortening of Salat During Travel (Qasr)
QASR Salat
Fardh Salaat during travel is reduced to only two Rak'aat. This is known as Qasr Salaat. The Holy Quran says: When you travel through the earth, there is no blame on you if you shorten your Salaat. (Al  Nisa 4: 101)
Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam said:  This is a favor of Allah to you, so you should accept his favor gratefully. (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi)
The Fuqaha (Jurists) agree that since Rasulullah Peace Be Upon Him always prayed Qasr Salaat during travel, it is mandatoryfor every Believer to shorten his Salaat during travel. This appliesonly to Zuhr, 'Asr and Isha Salaat, which are reduced from four totwo Rakhat. There is no shortening of Rak'aat in Fajr and Maghrib Salaat.
Sunnah and Nafil during Travel
The traveler has the option to offer or not to offer Sunnah and Nafil Salaat. It is recommended that one should offer only Fardhwhen one is actually traveling and should offer Sunnah and Nafilwhen one has settled down at a place. The Fajr Sunnah and Witrshould be offered even during the state of travel.
1. Salaat missed during a journey will have to be shortened even when offered as Qadha Salaat at home.
2. Salaat missed at home will have to be offered in even when offered as Qadha during travel.
3. If a traveler offers the Salaat in congregation, he has to offer Salaat following the Imam.
4. A traveler can lead a congregation Salaat of residents of a place. He should announce before the Salaat that he will offer Qasr Salaat. He will thus complete his Salaat after two Rak 'aat and the residents will then offer two Rak 'aat individually.
1. Most jurists allow a traveler to combine the Zuhr Salaat with 'Asr, and the Maghrib Salaat with Isha during the whole journey. He can combine these Salaat when he is actually traveling and also when he has settled at a place.
2. When the combined Salaat is offered in congregation, it should be preceded by one Azan and two separate Iqamah for each Salaat.
3. No Sunnah or Nafil should be offered between the two Salaat when they are combined together.
4. When combining the two Salaat, it is recommended to delay the first Salaat to its last limit and to offer the second Salaat at its beginning time.
Ibn Abbas related that Prophet Peace Be Upon Him used to combine Zuhr and 'Asr Salaat when he was on a journey and he also used to combine Maghrib and Isha Salaat.
Muaz ibn Jabal reported that during the campaign of Tabuk, if Rasulullah Peace be Upon Him resumed his journey before the decline of sun, he would combine the Zuhr and 'Asr Salaat and offer it at the 'Asr time. If the sun had declined, he would offer Zuhr and 'Asr at the Zuhr time and then resume his journey. In the same way he combines the Maghrib and Isha Salaat. (Tirmidhi)

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