In order to understand the relationship between science and Islam, it is necessary first to explain Islam, as it was Islam that provided the driving force of change and research in science. It is the Islamic ideology that deserves the credit and not just the individuals only.
The word 'Islam', in Arabic, linguistically means submission. As a term, 'Islam' refers to the Message that was revealed to Muhammad SAW by Allah, the One Creator, and a 'Muslim' is the one who believes in Allah, and accepts Muhammad SAW as the last and final Prophet and Messenger Of Allah. Consequently, a Muslim believes in Islam in its entirety.
In sharp contrast to Christianity and Judaism, Islam is not merely a religion. Rather, Islam is a unique and comprehensive ideology that guides the life of the human being. The Islamic ideology, by the definition of an ideology, consists of both the 'Aqeedah (creed, doctrine) and Systems, to regulate the practical life of human beings.
The Islamic 'Aqeedah provides the correct and comprehensive answers to the fundamental questions regarding humanity's existence and that of th universe. It addresses the issue of the human being's purpose in life, and links it with what preceded life and what will come after it, thereby settling humanity's core problem and providing the basis for systems and rules to properly Organize human affairs. This 'Aqeedah also provides the basi s for a means to implement Islam in reality, thus transferring it from 'theory' to 'practice'. This means of implementing Islam is through the State. The State is an integral part of the ideology and distinguishes it from a philosophy, which provides hypothetical ideas but no means to implement them.
Islam provide a comprehensive structure to govern the affairs of human
beings. It correctly establishes:
I) The relationship between the human being and his Creator
2) The personal affairs of individuals
3) The various relationships (social, political, economic, and international)
that exist in the society
Thus , Islam constitutes a Creed and Systems. What distinguishes Islam from the ideologies of Capitalism and Communism is that Islam is built on the correct idea, whereas the others are founded on a shallow and unenlightened view of the life of the human being and the world in which he exists. Because Islam establishes the correct understanding of life and places humanity in the correct context, the systems and culture emanating from the Islamic creed would correctly address the human nature and provide the correct solutions. In this context, Islam is compatible with the human being. Islam does not ignore a human being's instincts or desires, but organizes them in the proper context, including the survival instinct that prompts man to seek material progress through the acquisition of science and technology.
Islam is an ideology that was revealed to the world. The spread of Islam is neither confined to time or place, nor dependent upon science and technology. Although science and technology has changed the living conditions of the people around the globe, the needs and instincts of humanity have not changed. Therefore, Islam, which came to organize the needs and instincts through its implementation upon society, is applicable and valid for all time.