Defination of Taqawa for Quran and Ahadith of Prophet (PBUH)
Taqwa is an Arabic word which is explained as a shield against wrongdoing and further expounded as to be “conscious of Allah” or to have “fear of Allah” or to be “cautiously aware of Allah”.
This consciousness and fear of Allah is understood as a protection and a shield against wrongdoing. The abstention of evil through this fear, consciousness and establishing a cautious awareness of Allah, ultimately develops one’s love of Him.
The only basis of superiority and excellence that there is, or can be, between man and man is that of moral excellence. As regards birth, all men arc equal, for their Creator is One, their substance of creation is one, and their way of creation is one, and they are descended from the same parents. Moreover, a person’s is born in a particular country, nation, or clan is just accidental. Therefore, there is no rational ground on account of which one person may be regarded as superior to the other. The real thing that makes one person superior to others is that one should be more God-conscious, a greater avoider of evils, and a follower of the way of piety and righteousness. Such a man. Whether he belongs to any race, any nation and any country, is valuable and worthy on account of his personal merit. And the one who is reverse of him in character is in any case an inferior person whether he is black or white, born in the east or the west. These same truths that have been stated in this beef verse of the Qur'an, have been explained in greater detail by the Holy Prophet in his addresses and traditions. In the speech that he made on the conquest of Makkah, after going round the Ka'bah, he said: 'Thank God Who has removed from you the blemish of ignorance and its arrogance. O people, men are divided into classes: the pious and righteous, who arc honorable in the sight of Allah, and the sinful and vicious, who arc contemptible in the sight of Allah, whereas all men are the children of Adam and Adam had been created by Allah from clay." (Baihaqi, Tirmidhi). On the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage, in the midst of the Tashriq days, he addressed the people, and said: 'O people, be aware: your God is One. No Arab has any superiority over a non-Arab, and no non-Arab any superiority over an Arab, and no white one has any superiority over a black one, and no black one any superiority over a white one, except on the basis of taqva (piety). The most honorable among you in the sight, of Allah is he who is the most pious and righteous of you. Say if I have conveyed the Message to you?" And the great congregation of the people responded, saying: Yes, you have, O Messenger of Allah." Thereupon the Holy Prophet said: "Then Iet the one who is present convey it to those who are absent," ( Baihaqi) In a Hadith he has said: "You are all the children of Adam, and Adam was created from the dust. Let the people give'up boasting of their ancestors, otherwise they will stand more degraded than a mean insect in the sight of Allah." ( Bazzar) In another Hadith the Holy Prophet said: "Allah will not enquire about your lineage on the Day of Resurrection. The most honourable in the sight of Allah is he who is most pious. "(Ibn Jarir) In still another Hadith he said: "Allah does not see your outward appearances and your possessions, but He sees your hearts and your deeds." (Muslim, lbn Majah). These teachings have not remained confined to words only but Islam has practically established a universal brotherhood of the believers on the basis, which does not allow any distinction on account of color, race, language, country and nationality which is free from every concept of high and low, clean and unclean, mean and respectable, which admits all human beings with equal rights, whether they belong to any race and nation, any land or region.
“It is not taqwa that you turn your faces toward East or West, but it is taqwa to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book and the Messengers, to spend of your substance out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer and practice regular charity; to fulfill the contracts you have made; to be firm and patient, in pain and adversity. Those are the truthful and those are the muttaqun.” [Qur’an 2:177]
Taqwa in Ahadith
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “The most common thing which leads people to Paradise is taqwa of Allah and good conduct, and the most common thing which leads people to the Hell Fire is the mouth and the private parts.” [Tirmidhi]
Tafseer ibn Kathir mentions that Atiyah As-Sa’di said the Propeht (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “The servant will not acquire the status of those with taqwa until he abandons what is harmless out of fear of falling into that which is harmful.” [Ibn Majah, Tirmizi]
"O ye who believe! Have taqwa of Allah and let every soul look to what provision he has sent forth for the morrow." [Al-Hashar, 59:18].
Taqwa (piousness) means, to fear, to refrain and to defend oneself from sins on account of fear of Allah. Muttaqi (pious) is a religious person who lives paying attention to taqwa.The first thought about taqwa is to refrain from harams (forbidden things). Refraining from Makrooh acts (abominable acts) comes after that. Makrooh means a disgraceful and abominable act, talk or behavior. Giving them up is also of taqwa. After that, we confront doubtful things. They have a relationship with harams like as makrooh acts. The suitable behavior in the name of taqwa, when confronting a doubtful, undefined matter, is to think its probability of being haram and to give it up. Then, Mubah (permissible) and Halâl (Lawful) acts and behaviors come. Enjoying them sufficiently and avoiding waste is also of taqwa.Allah’s Messenger (Peace and Blessings be Upon Him), in one of his Hadiths says:” Lawful things are defined, so are unlawful things. However, there are some suspicious things between these two. When a shepherd puts his sheep out to pasture near a forest, there is a possibility that sheep could enter into that forest at any time; similarly, the one who does not refrain from doubtful things could go into harams. “